PLEDGE OF ALLEGIANCE NAZIS & RACISTS, Edward Bellamy, Francis Bellamy, Margaret Sanger, EUGENICS

The USA's Pledge of Allegiance (& the military salute) was the origin of Adolf Hitler's "Nazi" salute under the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazis).

The swastika was used by the military and by socialists in the USA and in the USSR, before it was used by the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP).

The swastika, although an ancient symbol, was also used to represent "S" letters joined for "socialism" under the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazis), similar to the alphabetical symbolism for the SS Division, the SA, the NSV, and the VW logo (the letters "V" and "W" joined for "Volkswagen").

Francis Bellamy & Edward Bellamy touted National Socialism and the police state in the USA decades before their dogma was exported to Germany. They influenced the NSDAP, its dogma, symbols and rituals. and

The USA originated Nazism. Some Nazi practices that the USA used before German National Socialists include: Eugenics and sterilization; the Nazi salute; robotic chanting to flags by children (in schools) and by adults (the U.S.'s Pledge of Allegiance); segregation and official policies of racism (e.g. in schools and elsewhere); The use of the swastika symbol by socialists and by the military; Social Security numbering and tracking of the entire population and even tattooing of numbers on people.

It did happen here. Worse, many of the U.S. Practices outlasted German National Socialism. Many of the U.S.'s practices continue today.

In the book "War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to Create A Master Race" by Edwin Black, the author's central thesis is that Nazi racial hygiene and its ultimate manifestations in the Holocaust were imported in detail from the USA, and that, indeed, it was US ruling elites who hatched the idea of creating a master Aryan race by selective breeding and then passed it along to the National Socialist German Workers Party.

In Zweites Buch (Second Book), Adolf Hitler portrayed the U.S. as a "racially successful" society that used eugenics and segregation and followed what Hitler thought was a wise policy of excluding "racially degenerate" immigration from eastern and southern Europe. It was a change from Mein Kampf and what caused the change in Hitler's views between 1924 and 1928 is not known. By 1928, Hitler seems to have heard about the U.S.'s massive industrial wealth, the Immigration Act of 1924, segregation, and the fact that most American states had eugenics boards to sterilize people who were considered inferior. Hitler declared his support for such practices and desired that German socialists would follow suit. Was Hitler also aware of the Nazi salute and robotic chanting that was used in the U.S.'s Pledge of Allegiance and had been so for about 3 decades?

The notorious American and National Socialist Edward Bellamy authored the socialist utopian fantasy "Equality." The popularity of Bellamy's eugenic utopia coincided with Alfred Ploetz's formulation of a scientific method for its realization. Ploetz (August 22, 1860 – March 20, 1940) was a German physician and eugenicist known for coining the term racial hygiene (Rassenhygiene) and promoting the concept in Germany. Many German socialists responded enthusiastically to Bellamy's vision as offering the basis in evolutionary terms for a classless world community or Volksgemeinschaft.

Edward Bellamy and Francis Bellamy (Edward's cousin and cohort) were conspiracy theorists and socialists. Edward Bellamy's conspiracy theories were outlined in his books, including the novel "Looking Backward" an international bestseller that Bellamy personally had translated into German, where Bellamy had lived for a year. Bellamy's book launched a global movement of national socialism.

Both Bellamys wanted the government to take over all schools in order to impose their plans in the USA. Francis Bellamy aided Edward's conspiracy theory when Francis authored of the "Pledge of Allegiance" to the flag. The Nazi salute originated in America from Francis Bellamy's pledge, turning American children into quislings for national socialism, as shown in the work of Dr. Rex Curry (author of "Pledge of Allegiance Secrets").

The Bellamys believed that countries would be destroyed by diversity and individuality, unless the government imposed uniformity and "equality."

The arm extended straight out was an early way of saluting the American flag during the pledge. People would raise their right hand to their forehead and perform the standard military salute at the pledge's beginning, and then at the words "to my flag", extend their arm straight out. It was not an ancient Roman salute, although that is a popular myth. Dr. Curry showed that the ancient Roman salute myth came from the Pledge of Allegiance.

The National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazis) adapted the straight-arm gesture, along with robotic chanting to flags and government.

The Eugenics movement in Britain and America was one of Hitler's inspirations for genocide, just as his salute was inspired by the American salute.

Yet, to this day, conspiracy theories that question government action are shunned, while conspiracy theories that tout government action, and even all-out war, are embraced and repeated.

In summation, there are many ways in which Hitler and his national socialists were familiar with American national socialists and American practices (including America's nazi salute from the Pledge of Allegiance and its persecution of people who refused the mechanical brainwashing), here are a few ways:

  1. American socialist eugenicists, as explained by various authors including Edwin Black. Hitler personally communicated with and lauded American socialist eugenicists.

  2. The automaker Henry Ford and his book “The International Jew” and his Dearborn, Michigan newspaper. James D. Mooney, vice-president of overseas operations for General Motors, also received a medal from Hitler, the Merit Cross of the German Eagle, First Class.

  3. Edward Bellamy and Francis Bellamy via the international bestseller “Looking Backward” (translated into German) and the book “Equality” and via other print and film sources, and via “Nationalist Clubs” or “Nationalism Clubs” and various Nationalist publications that promoted the Bellamy dogma in and around Germany. They were both Freemasons and they spread their dogma and the salute/pledge of allegiance internationally via that organization and others (e.g. Boy Scouts), and a Youth's Congress. Francis wrote the pledge with the intent that it be used by other nations. See the book Edward Bellamy Abroad, by Sylvia E. Bowman, with an amazing 543 pages, and an entire chapter about Bellamy's influence in Germany.

  4. The early silent movie "The Vanishing American" (by George B. Seitz) based on the Zane Grey novel that shows the American stiff-armed salute taught to native Americans in a government school. And other American movies.

  5. American books and writers. See “Hitler’s Private Library: The Books That Shaped His Life” by Timothy W. Ryback, including the book by American eugenicist Madison Grant titled “The Passing of the Great Race.” Karl May, the German author who was one of Hitler's favorite authors and whose books were set in the USA as cowboy and Indian westerns.

  6. Ernst Hanfstaengl, an American and a Harvard grad and an intimate friend of Hitler known as “Putzi” and “Hitler's piano player” and who advised Hitler on how to lead a crowd into adulation and loyalty (e.g. as was -and is- done with the Pledge of Allegiance and its early Nazi salute).

  7. Via the Olympics, including the 1924 Olympics which displays the stiff-armed salute that the Olympics adopted from the USA's Pledge of Allegiance.

  8. News reports and court cases concerning pledge persecution that reached its nadir at the U.S. Supreme Court in 1940 in Minersville School District v. Gobitis when the Court upheld government persecution of children in government schools (socialist schools) if they refused the daily robotic brainwashing.

  9. Woodrow Wilson wanted all children to chant the pledge, during the time when America's nazi salute was used, during the time he was president and during WWI. Wilson is also quoted in the film “Birth of a Nation” explaining the goals of the “Aryan” people.

A fan of writes: The association of the pledge with the National Socialist German Workers' Party is at least skin deep. The stance, presentation, salute and pledge of allegiance were essentially the same.

The American pledge (1892) does predate the National Socialist German Workers' Party (1920) by some 28 years. The extended arm salutes varied a bit over time but was essentially the same. So did the National Socialist German Workers' Party copy American socialists?

It is significant that the author and promoter of the pledge, Francis Bellamy, was a self-proclaimed Socialist who wrote extensively of a US that would nationalize all industry and conscript all men into a full-time military which would then conquer the world. Sound familiar? These were radical notions at the turn of the century.

It is also significant that at that time (1899), John Dewey, author of Democracy and Education, was leading a campaign to turn US public education into an gigantic propaganda mill for international socialism.

"Children who know how to think for themselves spoil the harmony of the collective society which is coming where everyone is interdependent."

Afterwards the U.S. Bureau of Education wrote, "The public schools exist primarily for the benefit of the State rather than for the benefit of the individual." This at a time when Germany too was overhauling its school system.

But these were not the only connections with the pledge.

Vermont social scientists in the 1920s and '30s devised a plan to eliminate the state's "degenerate" bloodlines and replenish "old pioneer stock.

The 12-year survey was developed by an independent team of social scientists who studied "good" and "bad" families in the state and listed those which it determined needed to be *eliminated*.

The report was circulated among policymakers at the time and led to the passage of a 1931 sterilization law.

Yep. The earlier work of Dewey and Bellamy had paid off! The kids were now grown and thinking like true socialists. The science of human breeding had branched off from social Darwinism. Eugenics was front stage.

Visit the archives at the Boston Globe, 1999, for details.

This law resulted in the sterilization of several hundred poor, rural Vermonters, Abenaki Indians and others deemed unfit to procreate.

The model was soon adopted by other states which over the years effected thousands of Americans. Sound familiar?

So how is this relevant? Because the women's suffrage movement of the latter 1800s had become a socialist enclave which expanded the idea of birth control to population control.

Borrowing from the work of the social scientists, "Race Building in a Democracy" was the theme of the 1940 joint meeting of the Birth Control Federation of America and the Citizens Committee for Planned Parenthood where it was proclaimed about the leader of the National Socialist German Workers' Party...

"We, too, recognize the problem of race building, but our concern is with the quality of our people, not with their quantity alone."

So, that committee was aware of the goal of the leader of the National Socialist German Workers' Party  to decrease quantity while improving quality. They differed only in priorities.

Yep. That's THE Planned Parenthood.

A leading feminist at this meeting and a member of the American Eugenics Society, Margaret Sanger, attracted the attention of the leader of the National Socialist German Workers' Party who invited Sanger to Germnay to discuss some ideas.

The rest is history.

So, one bad deed leads to another. Each stage sets the stage for the next generation. Words mean things.

There is an "Annual Margaret Sanger-KKK rally art contest." In the past, entries have included photoshopped "recreations" of Sanger's actual work.

Planned Parenthood founder Margaret Sanger spoke at a rally of female KKK members, in 1926 in Silver Lake, New Jersey. In her 1938 book, "Margaret Sanger An Autobiography" (1971 reprint by Dover Publications, Inc. of the 1938 original published by W.W. Norton & Company) Sanger indicates at pages 366-367 that the she got along quite well with members of group. Here is a quote:

"Always to me any aroused group was a good group, and therefore I accepted an invitation to talk to the women's branch of the Ku Klux Klan...In the end, through simple illustrations I believed I had accomplished my purpose. A dozen invitations to speak to similar groups were proffered."

Sanger advocated birth control as a means of keeping the population of blacks in check. And Catholics. And Jews. And other ethinic minorites. And...well, you get the picture. Her slogan, "Every child a wanted child" was just sugar-coating for her real designs: a world free of what she called "the unfit." As Dale Ahlquist wrote in Gilbert Magazine:

Eugenics led directly to the birth control movement. All the same players were involved, such as Margaret Sanger, who was a member of the American Eugenics Society and was the editor of the Birth Control Review. The primary philosophy was trumpeted on the cover of the Birth Control Review: "More Children for the Fit. Less for the Unfit." She made it clear whom she considered unfit:. "Hebrews, Slavs, Catholics, and Negroes." She set up her Birth Control clinics only in their neighborhoods. She openly advocated the idea that such people should apply for official permission to have babies "as immigrants have to apply for visas."

She admired Adolf Hitler, and while he didn't care for Americans much, he liked her too.

The announcement for the 3rd Annual Margaret Sanger at the Ku Klux Klan Rally Art Contest! are posted at The Truth About Margaret Sanger. Unlike the past two years, photoshopped entries will not be accepted. However, contestants may submit "Drawings, cartoons, historical novels, haiku, dance, plays, videos, paintings, quilts, rap, puppetry, modern interpretations of Sanger speaking to the Klan, reenactments of the speech on YouTube, mime, audio recordings of actual Sanger quotes she may have reused when speaking to the Klan -- there is no limit to the artistic ways this historic event can be commemorated."


The Aryan Path Magazine - Published 1930 Theosophy Co., Ltd. Page 55  "...a 'Religion of Solidarity,' as it was called by Edward Bellamy, will not compel alteration of a self-centred programme of living."

From Theosophist Magazine September 1934-December 1934 (under Annie Wood Besant) - page 323  THE BELLAMY PLAN  A copy of the August issue of THE THEOSOPHIST, containing an article on my husband, Edward Bellamy, written by Fred Bell of the Bellamy League in South Africa, has just reached me, and I desire to extend my thanks to you for sending it. Many of Mr. Bellamy's most ardent disciples throughout the world are Theosophists, and this article, we hope, may be the means of calling the attention of others to the beauty and the soundness of his economic philosophy towards which the world seems now to be steadily moving. (Mrs.) EDWARD BELLAMY.


In another shameful episode in the history of U.S. jurisprudence, the Supreme Court ruled in the infamous 1927 Buck v. Bell case that the State of Virginia had had the right to sterilize a woman named Carrie Buck against her will, based solely on the (spurious) criteria that she was “feeble-minded” and promiscuous, with Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes concluding, “Three generations of imbeciles are enough.”

The United Nations now regards forced sterilization as a crime against humanity.

Margaret Sanger, EUGENICS EDWARD BELLAMY Equality

Health, Race and German Politics Between National Unification and Nazism, 1870-1945 (Cambridge Studies in the History of Medicine) (Paperback)
by Paul Weindling

Ploetz convinced Rudin that alcohol and tobacco were not only damaging to individual health but they also poisoned the fitness of future generations. Rudin can be regarded as the co-founder of German eugenics.

"In 1890 Ploetz married Rudin's sister, Pauline, who was studying medicine. Ernst Rudin established an abstinence association, Humanitas, for Swiss grammar schools. Rudin was imbued with reformist ideals similar to those of Ploetz and the Hauptmanns. Rudin and his fellow schoolboys reinforced their abstinence by adventorously reading Bebel on women and socialism (the SPD's Party Congress was held in St Gallen in 1887), medical tracts by Forel and Bunge, and the utopian writing of Edward Bellamy. There was a vitual epidemic of utopianism. The linking of utopianism and Lebensreform was a stimulus to biological research."

"Although Ploetz acquired Swiss nationality, his German nationalist convictions also intensified. In the physiological laboratory of Gaule, where he was completing his dissertation on heredity, worked the fellow abstinence-campaigner Fick, who was a hybrid between a democrat and a fervent Pan-German nationalist."

"Fick persuaded them that they could earn well in South Africa where he had spent five years. Ploetz looked forward to being able to study bush men as among the lowest human races. However, the couple finally abandoned their African plans and decided on the United States, where they went in 1890..."

Fick was involved in the founding of the Pan-German league.  Ploetz encountered a strong current of nationalism although he chose not to become active in Pan-Germanist agitation.

The Ploetzes settled in Springfield, Massachusetts, where they opened a medical practice and bred chickens.  The later moved to Meriden, Connecticutt. While struggling to establish himself, Ploetz used his free time to write a book on the potential of 'our race' and on problems of social welfare.

Ploetz hoped to convince emigre German socialists that there was a way to refute Darwinist criticisms of socialism. Ploetz was in touch with Jacques Loeb, a radically minded German biologist, who had emigrated because of his displeasure with social conditions. Ploetz had contacts with the Springfield Socialist Party, and with socialist journalists in New York. Through his Zurich comrade, the Nietzschean John Henry Mackay, Ploetz struck up a friendship with a socialist carpenter, Adolph Gerecke, who was a contributer to German naturalist journals. Ploetz hoped to use contacts with a German secret lodge in Connecticutt to obtain the genealogies of its 20,000 members. He formulated a programme for racial and social reform.

Ploetz's choice of such an apparently unpromising place as Springfield might be explained by the presence of the utopina author, Edward Bellamy. Bellamy edited a newspaper in Springfield and wrote the utopian novel, Looking Backward 2000-1887, which seized the imagination of a vast readership. It was published in 1888, translated into German in 1889, and was popular among socialists. Perfection was the antithesis of urban Boston of 1887: there was to be a socialist society based on merit rather than wealth as the main spur to human endeavour. Bellamy condemned the chaos of liberal self-interest as resulting in 'a horde of barbarians with a thousand petty chiefs'. There should, instead, be established an orderly society 'as compared with that of a disciplined army under one general - such a fighting machine, for example, as the German army under von Moltke'. State socialism was placed on a medical and biological basis. The guide to Bellamy's revitalized Boston was a physician, Dr. Leete. He compared the model society to 'one family'. Marriage was to be based on love and fitness, and the congenitally deficient would be banned from marriage. Bellamy admired Galton's 1873 work on 'stirpiculture' (a term pre-dating 'eugenics' first used by Galton in 1883).(footnote 65 citing S.E. Bowman et al., Edward Bellamy Abroad (New York, 1962), pp. 151-9; A.E. Morgan, Edward Bellamy (New York, 1944), p. 158)). The popularity of Bellamy's eugenic utopia coincided with Ploetz's formulation of a scientific method for its realization. Many German socialists responded enthusiastically to Bellamy's vision as offering the basis in evolutionary terms for a classless world community or Volksgemeinschaft.

Bellamy typified how political utopias were reformulate in biological terms. Social reformers were convinced that if science and medicine were judiciously applied, utopia was within mankind's grasp.

"The vigour of German science and medicine derived from the emerging industrial economy..."
1.      on Page 72:
"... , medical tracts by Forel and Bunge, and the utopian writings of Edward Bellamy.43 There was a virtual epidemic of utopianism. The linking of utopianism and Lebensreform was a stimulus to biological research. Also ..."
2.     on Page 76:
"... Ploetz's choice of such an apparently unpromising place as Springfield might be explained by the presence of the utopian author, Edward Bellamy.64 Bellamy edited a newspaper in Springfield and wrote the utopian novel, Looking Backward 2000-1887, which seized the imagination of a ..."
3.     on Page 77:
"... 68 Ploetz's utopianism drew inspiration from bacteriology and hereditary biology 6s S.E. Bowman et al., Edward Bellamy Abroad (New York, 1962), pp. 151-9; A.E. Morgan, Edward Bellamy (New York, 1944), P. 158 66 B. Ward Richardson, Hygeia ..."
4.     from Back Matter:
"... Bowman, S.E. et al., Edward Bellamy Abroad (New York, 1962). Bradbury, S., The Evolution of the Microscope (Oxford, 1967). Brady, ft., The Rationalization Movement in German ..."
5.     from Back Matter:
"... Morel, B.A., Trait des dgnrescences physiques, intellectuelles et morales de l'espce humaine (Paris, 1857). Morgan, A.E., Edward Bellamy (New York, 1944). Moses, J., Arbeitslosigkeit. Ein Problem der Gesundheit (Berlin, 1931). Mosse, G.L., 'The Image of the Jew in ..."
6.     from Index:
"... 4o6-8,438,526 Behring, Emil (1854-1917), 33, 83, 114, 160-2, 164, 169, 171, 192, 198, 234 Belgium, 148 Bella Coolla Indians, 54 Bellamy, Edward (1850-98), 72, 76-7, 86 Belzec, 550 Bender, Clara, 455 Bender, 544 Bendix, Kurt (188o-1942), 429, 461 Benjamin, Georg (1895-1942), 353, ..."

Page 72
... held in St Gallen in 1887), medical tracts by Ford and Bunge, and the utopian writings of Edward Bellamy.43 There was a virtual epidemic of utopianism. ...
Page 76
... choice of such an apparently unpromising place as Springfield might be explained by the presence of the utopian author, Edward Bellamy. ...
Page 77
... utopianism drew inspiration from bacteriology and hereditary biology •‘ SE Bowman eta!., Edward Bellamy Abroad (New York, ...
Page 589
Bower, T., Blind Eye to Murder (London, 1981). The Paper Clip Conspiracy (London, 1987). Bowman, SE et at., Edward Bellamy Abroad (New York, ...
Page 601
Morgan, AE, Edward Bellamy (New York, ‘9a). ...
more »
Page 613
... Indians, 54 Bellamy, Edward (185o-98), 72, 76-7, 86 Belzec, 550 Bender, Clara, 455 Bender, 544 Bendix, Kurt ( ...

Julian West, James Upham, Youths Companion, Nationalism, Socialist Revolution, Theosophical, Theosophy, Blavatsky
Pledge of Allegiance youtube youtube Pledge of Allegiance


One such intellectual was Havelock Ellis (1859-1939), who is now best remembered for his work in sexology. But he has a more unsavory side to his past as a noted promoter of eugenics, sterilization of the ‘unfit’, and racial purity. In 1937 he defended Hitler’s racial law, saying: “if properly administered, it has no relation to ‘Aryan’ aspirations”. Ellis had much common ground with the socialists of his day. George Watson has this to say about it in “The Lost Literature of Socialism”:

    ‘ … Ellis’s “Task of Social Hygiene” … unites Marx’s early vision of inevitable class conflict with eugenic theory and the coming triumph of the white races. Sidney and Beatrice Webb echoed the point in the same year in the New Statesman. … So the socialist intelligentsia of the western world entered the first world war publicly committed to racial purity and white domination, and no less committed to violence.’

Havelock Ellis writes in “Task of Social Hygiene” (1912), in Chapter XII – Individualism and Socialism, pg. 402:

    ‘So it is that the question of breed, the production of fine individuals, the elevation of the ideal of quality in human production over that of mere quantity, begins to be seen, not merely as a noble ideal in itself, but as the only method by which Socialism can be enabled to continue on its present path.’

Ellis wrote this, but it could as well have been written by a member of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party advocating the purification of the ‘Aryan’ race. Ellis sees ‘quality in human production’ as a ‘noble ideal’ and necessary for socialism to ‘continue on its present path’. And continue it certainly did.

More from Ellis:

    ‘Through the slow growth of knowledge concerning hereditary conditions, by voluntary self-restraint, by the final disappearance of the lingering prejudice against the control of procreation, by sterilization in special cases, by methods of pressure which need not amount to actual compulsion, it will be possible to attain an increasingly firm grip on the evil elements of heredity. Not until such measures as these, under the controlling influence of a sense of personal responsibility extending to every member of the community, have long been put into practice, can we hope to see man on the earth risen to his full stature, healthy in body, noble in spirit, beautiful in both alike, moving spaciously and harmoniously among his fellows in the great world of Nature’…

In the same chapter Ellis quotes from a pamphlet on “Socialism and Eugenics” by a Dr. Eden Paul:

    “Whereas both Socialism and Eugenics are concerned solely with the application of the knowledge gained by experience to the amelioration of the human lot, it seems preferable to dispense with religious terminology, and regard the two doctrines as complementary parts of the great modern movement known by the name of Humanism.”

Here we see what F.A. Hayek calls ‘the fatal conceit’ of socialism in deeming itself the agent for ‘amelioration of the human lot’. Here we also see the absolutely evil perversion of the meaning of language: socialism and eugenics are claimed to be components of humanism.

Another notable whose ideological proclivities are not talked about is H.G. Wells. Remembered today only as a famous writer of science fiction, he was a member of the Fabian society which led the socialist political movement in the first part of the 20th century. The Fabians included the famous – or infamous, depending on where one stands on the issue -  Sidney and Beatrice Webb and George Bernard Shaw. In 1902, H.G. Wells published a work titled: “Anticipations of the Reaction of Mechanical and Scientific Progress Upon Human Life and Thought”. The last chapter in this book is named “The Faith of the New Republic”.

Margaret Sanger, EUGENICS Edward Bellamy Equality

Margaret Sanger, EUGENICS EDWARD BELLAMY & Francis Bellamy conspiracty theorists, conspiracy theory, conspiracy theories.

From the news 07/10/09 Exhibit at Germany's Bach Museum probes Nazi influence on music: Richard Wagner is the classical composer most associated with the Nazis, but Johann Sebastian Bach was the one the party dubbed "the most German of Germans" and whose music was played at rallies where "Heil Hitler" was chanted, to stir up nationalist zeal.

Government in the United States has a history of pushing chants and music to stir up nationalist zeal.

Compare the Pledge of Allegiance (1892) to another form of hailing the flag: The U.S. National Anthem (the Star Spangled Banner, (a reference to the flag)). The lyrics state: "Oh say can you see, by the dawn's early light, what so proudly we hailed...(the flag)."

In time, America's stiff-arm salute was used for various purposes in the United States, including the National Anthem (the Star Spangled Banner), for school flags, and even as a general greeting or cheer during sports events (including college football games).

By the time Ernst Hanfstaengl was attending school in the U.S., the American straight-arm salute was used for various purposes, including the National Anthem (the Star Spangled Banner), for school flags, and even as a general greeting or cheer during sports events (including Harvard football games).

The National Socialist German Workers' Party acquired the straight-arm salute from America (American films) and from German-Americans (such as Ernst Hanfstaengl).

The movie "Olympiad" and other famous photography of Jesse Owens shows Mr. Owens using a military salute during the raising of the USA's flag and the playing of the national anthem, while nearby Germans give the straight-arm salute.  While comment has been made elsewhere of the photographic illustration of the salute, none of those comments point out that Mr. Owens is performing only the introductory salute of the pledge of allegiance as it was in 1936, and that Mr. Owens apparently did not perform the rest of the pledge's salute, the straight-arm salute, presumably because he did not wish it misinterpreted as a salute to the leader of the National Socialist German Workers' Party.

Rex Curry blog spot

Pledge of Allegiance blog spot

Pledge Allegiance blog spot