U.S. wartime intelligence also believed the German National Socialist salute may have been copied from American cheerleaders. A government report claims of the Hitler salute: "In 1923 he adored American football marches and college songs. The 'Sieg Heil' used in all political rallies is a direct copy of the technique used by American football cheerleaders." And the American football cheerleaders adopted the method from the American Pledge of Allegiance.